Encoding struggles after 2-3 seconds or stalls

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fcs87zrvfx2
Posts: 2
Joined: Thu Feb 07, 2019 8:41 pm

Encoding struggles after 2-3 seconds or stalls

Post by fcs87zrvfx2 » Thu Feb 07, 2019 9:16 pm

Description of problem or question:
Encoding slows down unbearably after only a couple of seconds. For example, the encoding of a 2160p/29.97 raw iPhone video file into H265 with the same resolution and FPS (and either CoreAAC mono audio at 160 kbps or AAC Passthru) will encode very quicky for the first 2-3 seconds, almost at 1x speed (= realtime), but drop to under 1 fps after that and sometimes stall completely. Letting it rise to 44-45 Celsius or keeping it around 38-39 degrees by increasing fan speed didn't make a noticable difference, so I guess it's not CPU-throttling. The slow preset resulted in an avarage fps of 0.61, while the very fast setting in a whopping 2.06.

Could you please comment on whether this is to be expected with this setup or share your insight on what the problem might be? Thank you very much!

HandBrake version:
1.2.0 and latest Nightly Build. The Log will be from an attempt with the Nightly Build, but there was no noticable difference to the latest regular version 1.2.0.

Operating system and version:
macOS High Sierra 10.13.6
Macbook Pro Retina Display 2015 13-inch 2,7 GHz Intel Core i5 (Dual-Core)

Log (preset: slow)
"encoded 410 frames in 667.17s (0.61 fps), 14794.87 kb/s, Avg QP:30.85"

Code: Select all

HandBrake Activity Log for Session: 2019-02-07T20:35:25Z
Handbrake Version: 20190205180207-a8ef28a-master (2019020701)
2018-12-16 130003 IMG 4870 rf26.00.mp4
Preset: 4K H265 rf26 (autoFPS AACpassthru mono)
[21:35:25] macgui: QueueCore prevented sleep
[21:35:25] macgui: QueueCore scanning specifically for title: 1
[21:35:25] CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-5257U CPU @ 2.70GHz
[21:35:25]  - Intel microarchitecture Broadwell
[21:35:25]  - logical processor count: 4
[21:35:25] hb_scan: path=/Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV, title_index=1
udfread ERROR: ECMA 167 Volume Recognition failed
disc.c:323: failed opening UDF image /Users/......HIDDEN....../iphonerol/2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV
disc.c:424: error opening file BDMV/index.bdmv
disc.c:424: error opening file BDMV/BACKUP/index.bdmv
[21:35:25] bd: not a bd - trying as a stream/file instead
libdvdnav: Using dvdnav version 6.0.0
libdvdread: Encrypted DVD support unavailable.
libdvdread:DVDOpenFileUDF:UDFFindFile /VIDEO_TS/VIDEO_TS.IFO failed
libdvdread:DVDOpenFileUDF:UDFFindFile /VIDEO_TS/VIDEO_TS.BUP failed
libdvdread: Can't open file VIDEO_TS.IFO.
libdvdnav: vm: failed to read VIDEO_TS.IFO
[21:35:25] dvd: not a dvd - trying as a stream/file instead
Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '/Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV':
  Metadata:
    major_brand     : qt  
    minor_version   : 0
    compatible_brands: qt  
    creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
    com.apple.quicktime.make: Apple
    com.apple.quicktime.model: iPhone SE
    com.apple.quicktime.software: 10.3.2
    com.apple.quicktime.creationdate: 2018-12-16............
  Duration: 00:00:13.68, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 45422 kb/s
    Stream #0:0(und): Video: h264 (High) (avc1 / 0x31637661), yuv420p(tv, bt709), 3840x2160, 45299 kb/s, 29.98 fps, 29.97 tbr, 600 tbn, 1200 tbc (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Video
      encoder         : H.264
    Stream #0:1(und): Audio: aac (LC) (mp4a / 0x6134706D), 44100 Hz, mono, fltp, 86 kb/s (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Audio
    Stream #0:2(und): Data: none (mebx / 0x7862656D), 23 kb/s (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Metadata
    Stream #0:3(und): Data: none (mebx / 0x7862656D), 0 kb/s (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Metadata
[21:35:25] scan: decoding previews for title 1
[21:35:26] scan: audio 0x1: aac, rate=44100Hz, bitrate=86678 Unknown (AAC LC) (1.0 ch)
[21:35:28] scan: 10 previews, 3840x2160, 29.978 fps, autocrop = 0/0/0/0, aspect 16:9, PAR 1:1
[21:35:28] libhb: scan thread found 1 valid title(s)
[21:35:28] macgui: QueueCore scan done
[21:35:28] 1 job(s) to process
[21:35:28] starting job
[21:35:28] macgui: QueueCore started encoding 2018-12-16 130003 IMG 4870 rf26.00.mp4
[21:35:28] macgui: QueueCore with preset 4K H265 rf26 (autoFPS AACpassthru mono)
[21:35:28] decomb filter thread started for segment 1
[21:35:28] decomb filter thread started for segment 0
[21:35:28] decomb filter thread started for segment 2
[21:35:28] decomb filter thread started for segment 3
[21:35:28] decomb check thread started for segment 0
[21:35:28] decomb check thread started for segment 1
[21:35:28] decomb check thread started for segment 3
[21:35:28] decomb check thread started for segment 2
[21:35:28] mask filter thread started for segment 0
[21:35:28] mask filter thread started for segment 1
[21:35:28] mask filter thread started for segment 2
[21:35:28] mask filter thread started for segment 3
[21:35:28] mask erode thread started for segment 0
[21:35:28] mask erode thread started for segment 1
[21:35:28] mask erode thread started for segment 2
[21:35:28] mask erode thread started for segment 3
[21:35:28] mask dilate thread started for segment 0
[21:35:28] mask dilate thread started for segment 1
[21:35:28] mask dilate thread started for segment 2
[21:35:28] mask dilate thread started for segment 3
[21:35:28] yadif thread started for segment 0
[21:35:28] yadif thread started for segment 1
[21:35:28] yadif thread started for segment 2
[21:35:28] yadif thread started for segment 3
[21:35:28] work: only 1 chapter, disabling chapter markers
[21:35:28] job configuration:
[21:35:28]  * source
[21:35:28]    + /Users/.....HIDDEN...../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV
[21:35:28]    + title 1, chapter(s) 1 to 1
[21:35:28]    + container: mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2
[21:35:28]    + data rate: 45422 kbps
[21:35:28]  * destination
[21:35:28]    + /Users/.....HIDDEN...../2018-12-16 130003 IMG 4870 rf26.00.mp4
[21:35:28]    + container: MPEG-4 (libavformat)
[21:35:28]  * video track
[21:35:28]    + decoder: h264
[21:35:28]      + bitrate 45299 kbps
[21:35:28]    + filters
[21:35:28]      + Comb Detect (mode=3:spatial-metric=2:motion-thresh=1:spatial-thresh=1:filter-mode=2:block-thresh=40:block-width=16:block-height=16)
[21:35:28]      + Decomb (mode=39)
[21:35:28]      + Framerate Shaper (mode=0:rate=27000000/900658)
[21:35:28]        + frame rate: same as source (around 29.978 fps)
[21:35:28]      + Crop and Scale (width=3840:height=2160:crop-top=0:crop-bottom=0:crop-left=0:crop-right=0)
[21:35:28]        + source: 3840 * 2160, crop (0/0/0/0): 3840 * 2160, scale: 3840 * 2160
[21:35:28]    + Output geometry
[21:35:28]      + storage dimensions: 3840 x 2160
[21:35:28]      + pixel aspect ratio: 1 : 1
[21:35:28]      + display dimensions: 3840 x 2160
[21:35:28]    + encoder: H.265 (libx265)
[21:35:28]      + preset:  slow
[21:35:28]      + options: strong-intra-smoothing=0:rect=0
[21:35:28]      + profile: main
[21:35:28]      + quality: 26.00 (RF)
[21:35:28]      + color profile: 1-1-1
[21:35:28]  * audio track 1
[21:35:28]    + decoder: Unknown (AAC LC) (1.0 ch) (track 1, id 0x1)
[21:35:28]      + bitrate: 86 kbps, samplerate: 44100 Hz
[21:35:28]    + AAC Passthru
[21:35:28] sync: expecting 410 video frames
x265 [info]: HEVC encoder version 2.9
x265 [info]: build info [Mac OS X][clang 10.0.0][64 bit] 8bit+10bit+12bit
x265 [info]: using cpu capabilities: MMX2 SSE2Fast LZCNT SSSE3 SSE4.2 AVX FMA3 BMI2 AVX2
x265 [info]: Main profile, Level-5 (Main tier)
x265 [info]: Thread pool created using 4 threads
x265 [info]: Slices                              : 1
x265 [info]: frame threads / pool features       : 2 / wpp(34 rows)
x265 [info]: Coding QT: max CU size, min CU size : 64 / 8
x265 [info]: Residual QT: max TU size, max depth : 32 / 1 inter / 1 intra
x265 [info]: ME / range / subpel / merge         : star / 57 / 3 / 3
x265 [info]: Keyframe min / max / scenecut / bias: 30 / 300 / 40 / 5.00
x265 [info]: Lookahead / bframes / badapt        : 25 / 4 / 2
x265 [info]: b-pyramid / weightp / weightb       : 1 / 1 / 0
x265 [info]: References / ref-limit  cu / depth  : 4 / on / on
x265 [info]: AQ: mode / str / qg-size / cu-tree  : 1 / 1.0 / 32 / 1
x265 [info]: Rate Control / qCompress            : CRF-26.0 / 0.60
x265 [info]: tools: limit-modes rd=4 psy-rd=2.00 rdoq=2 psy-rdoq=1.00 rskip
x265 [info]: tools: signhide tmvp lslices=4 deblock sao
[21:35:29] sync: first pts video is 0
[21:35:29] sync: "Chapter 1" (1) at frame 1 time 0
[21:35:29] sync: first pts audio 0x1 is 0
[21:41:49] reader: done. 1 scr changes
[21:46:35] work: average encoding speed for job is 0.816822 fps
[21:46:35] comb detect: heavy 4 | light 14 | uncombed 392 | total 410
[21:46:35] decomb: deinterlaced 4 | blended 14 | unfiltered 392 | total 410
[21:46:35] vfr: lost time: 0 (0 frames)
[21:46:35] vfr: gained time: 0 (0 frames) (0 not accounted for)
[21:46:35] aac-decoder done: 590 frames, 0 decoder errors
[21:46:35] h264-decoder done: 410 frames, 0 decoder errors
[21:46:35] sync: got 410 frames, 410 expected
[21:46:35] sync: framerate min 29.980 fps, max 29.980 fps, avg 29.978 fps
x265 [info]: frame I:      4, Avg QP:27.15  kb/s: 35468.69
x265 [info]: frame P:    119, Avg QP:28.10  kb/s: 26379.42
x265 [info]: frame B:    287, Avg QP:32.04  kb/s: 9703.38 
x265 [info]: Weighted P-Frames: Y:0.0% UV:0.0%
x265 [info]: consecutive B-frames: 16.3% 10.6% 7.3% 55.3% 10.6% 

encoded 410 frames in 667.17s (0.61 fps), 14794.87 kb/s, Avg QP:30.85
[21:46:36] mux: track 0, 410 frames, 25294683 bytes, 14759.83 kbps, fifo 256
[21:46:36] mux: track 1, 590 frames, 148649 bytes, 86.74 kbps, fifo 512
[21:46:36] libhb: work result = 0

Log (preset: very fast)
"encoded 410 frames in 199.21s (2.06 fps), 11402.09 kb/s, Avg QP:31.40"

Code: Select all

HandBrake Activity Log for Session: 2019-02-07T21:06:11Z
Handbrake Version: 20190205180207-a8ef28a-master (2019020701)
2018-12-16 130003 IMG 4870 rf26.00 vfast.mp4
Preset: 4K H265 rf26 (autoFPS AACpassthru mono) (Modified)
[22:06:11] macgui: QueueCore prevented sleep
[22:06:11] macgui: QueueCore scanning specifically for title: 1
[22:06:11] CPU: Intel(R) Core(TM) i5-5257U CPU @ 2.70GHz
[22:06:11]  - Intel microarchitecture Broadwell
[22:06:11]  - logical processor count: 4
[22:06:11] hb_scan: path=/Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV, title_index=1
udfread ERROR: ECMA 167 Volume Recognition failed
disc.c:323: failed opening UDF image /Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV
disc.c:424: error opening file BDMV/index.bdmv
disc.c:424: error opening file BDMV/BACKUP/index.bdmv
[22:06:11] bd: not a bd - trying as a stream/file instead
libdvdnav: Using dvdnav version 6.0.0
libdvdread: Encrypted DVD support unavailable.
libdvdread:DVDOpenFileUDF:UDFFindFile /VIDEO_TS/VIDEO_TS.IFO failed
libdvdread:DVDOpenFileUDF:UDFFindFile /VIDEO_TS/VIDEO_TS.BUP failed
libdvdread: Can't open file VIDEO_TS.IFO.
libdvdnav: vm: failed to read VIDEO_TS.IFO
[22:06:11] dvd: not a dvd - trying as a stream/file instead
Input #0, mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2, from '/Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV':
  Metadata:
    major_brand     : qt  
    minor_version   : 0
    compatible_brands: qt  
    creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
    com.apple.quicktime.make: Apple
    com.apple.quicktime.model: iPhone SE
    com.apple.quicktime.software: 10.3.2
    com.apple.quicktime.creationdate: 2018-12-16T13:00:03+0100
  Duration: 00:00:13.68, start: 0.000000, bitrate: 45422 kb/s
    Stream #0:0(und): Video: h264 (High) (avc1 / 0x31637661), yuv420p(tv, bt709), 3840x2160, 45299 kb/s, 29.98 fps, 29.97 tbr, 600 tbn, 1200 tbc (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Video
      encoder         : H.264
    Stream #0:1(und): Audio: aac (LC) (mp4a / 0x6134706D), 44100 Hz, mono, fltp, 86 kb/s (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Audio
    Stream #0:2(und): Data: none (mebx / 0x7862656D), 23 kb/s (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Metadata
    Stream #0:3(und): Data: none (mebx / 0x7862656D), 0 kb/s (default)
    Metadata:
      creation_time   : 2018-12-16T12:00:03.000000Z
      handler_name    : Core Media Metadata
[22:06:11] scan: decoding previews for title 1
[22:06:12] scan: audio 0x1: aac, rate=44100Hz, bitrate=86678 Unknown (AAC LC) (1.0 ch)
[22:06:15] scan: 10 previews, 3840x2160, 29.978 fps, autocrop = 0/0/0/0, aspect 16:9, PAR 1:1
[22:06:15] libhb: scan thread found 1 valid title(s)
[22:06:15] macgui: QueueCore scan done
[22:06:15] macgui: QueueCore started encoding 2018-12-16 130003 IMG 4870 rf26.00 vfast.mp4
[22:06:15] macgui: QueueCore with preset 4K H265 rf26 (autoFPS AACpassthru mono) (Modified)
[22:06:15] 1 job(s) to process
[22:06:15] starting job
[22:06:15] decomb filter thread started for segment 0
[22:06:15] decomb filter thread started for segment 1
[22:06:15] decomb filter thread started for segment 2
[22:06:15] decomb filter thread started for segment 3
[22:06:15] decomb check thread started for segment 0
[22:06:15] decomb check thread started for segment 1
[22:06:15] decomb check thread started for segment 2
[22:06:15] decomb check thread started for segment 3
[22:06:15] mask filter thread started for segment 0
[22:06:15] mask filter thread started for segment 1
[22:06:15] mask filter thread started for segment 2
[22:06:15] mask filter thread started for segment 3
[22:06:15] mask erode thread started for segment 0
[22:06:15] mask erode thread started for segment 1
[22:06:15] mask erode thread started for segment 2
[22:06:15] mask erode thread started for segment 3
[22:06:15] mask dilate thread started for segment 0
[22:06:15] mask dilate thread started for segment 1
[22:06:15] mask dilate thread started for segment 2
[22:06:15] mask dilate thread started for segment 3
[22:06:15] yadif thread started for segment 0
[22:06:15] yadif thread started for segment 1
[22:06:15] yadif thread started for segment 2
[22:06:15] yadif thread started for segment 3
[22:06:15] work: only 1 chapter, disabling chapter markers
[22:06:15] job configuration:
[22:06:15]  * source
[22:06:15]    + /Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG_4870.MOV
[22:06:15]    + title 1, chapter(s) 1 to 1
[22:06:15]    + container: mov,mp4,m4a,3gp,3g2,mj2
[22:06:15]    + data rate: 45422 kbps
[22:06:15]  * destination
[22:06:15]    + /Users/......HIDDEN....../2018-12-16 130003 IMG 4870 rf26.00 vfast.mp4
[22:06:15]    + container: MPEG-4 (libavformat)
[22:06:15]  * video track
[22:06:15]    + decoder: h264
[22:06:15]      + bitrate 45299 kbps
[22:06:15]    + filters
[22:06:15]      + Comb Detect (mode=3:spatial-metric=2:motion-thresh=1:spatial-thresh=1:filter-mode=2:block-thresh=40:block-width=16:block-height=16)
[22:06:15]      + Decomb (mode=39)
[22:06:15]      + Framerate Shaper (mode=0:rate=27000000/900658)
[22:06:15]        + frame rate: same as source (around 29.978 fps)
[22:06:15]      + Crop and Scale (width=3840:height=2160:crop-top=0:crop-bottom=0:crop-left=0:crop-right=0)
[22:06:15]        + source: 3840 * 2160, crop (0/0/0/0): 3840 * 2160, scale: 3840 * 2160
[22:06:15]    + Output geometry
[22:06:15]      + storage dimensions: 3840 x 2160
[22:06:15]      + pixel aspect ratio: 1 : 1
[22:06:15]      + display dimensions: 3840 x 2160
[22:06:15]    + encoder: H.265 (libx265)
[22:06:15]      + preset:  veryfast
[22:06:15]      + options: strong-intra-smoothing=0:rect=0
[22:06:15]      + profile: main
[22:06:15]      + quality: 26.00 (RF)
[22:06:15]      + color profile: 1-1-1
[22:06:15]  * audio track 1
[22:06:15]    + decoder: Unknown (AAC LC) (1.0 ch) (track 1, id 0x1)
[22:06:15]      + bitrate: 86 kbps, samplerate: 44100 Hz
[22:06:15]    + AAC Passthru
[22:06:16] sync: expecting 410 video frames
x265 [info]: HEVC encoder version 2.9
x265 [info]: build info [Mac OS X][clang 10.0.0][64 bit] 8bit+10bit+12bit
x265 [info]: using cpu capabilities: MMX2 SSE2Fast LZCNT SSSE3 SSE4.2 AVX FMA3 BMI2 AVX2
x265 [info]: Main profile, Level-5 (Main tier)
x265 [info]: Thread pool created using 4 threads
x265 [info]: Slices                              : 1
x265 [info]: frame threads / pool features       : 2 / wpp(34 rows)
x265 [info]: Coding QT: max CU size, min CU size : 64 / 8
x265 [info]: Residual QT: max TU size, max depth : 32 / 1 inter / 1 intra
x265 [info]: ME / range / subpel / merge         : hex / 57 / 1 / 2
x265 [info]: Keyframe min / max / scenecut / bias: 30 / 300 / 40 / 5.00
x265 [info]: Lookahead / bframes / badapt        : 15 / 4 / 0
x265 [info]: b-pyramid / weightp / weightb       : 1 / 1 / 0
x265 [info]: References / ref-limit  cu / depth  : 2 / on / on
x265 [info]: AQ: mode / str / qg-size / cu-tree  : 1 / 1.0 / 32 / 1
x265 [info]: Rate Control / qCompress            : CRF-26.0 / 0.60
x265 [info]: tools: rd=2 psy-rd=2.00 early-skip rskip signhide tmvp fast-intra
x265 [info]: tools: lslices=8 deblock sao
[22:06:17] sync: first pts video is 0
[22:06:17] sync: "Chapter 1" (1) at frame 1 time 0
[22:06:17] sync: first pts audio 0x1 is 0
[22:08:31] reader: done. 1 scr changes
[22:09:35] work: average encoding speed for job is 2.419620 fps
[22:09:35] comb detect: heavy 4 | light 14 | uncombed 392 | total 410
[22:09:35] decomb: deinterlaced 4 | blended 14 | unfiltered 392 | total 410
[22:09:35] vfr: lost time: 0 (0 frames)
[22:09:35] vfr: gained time: 0 (0 frames) (0 not accounted for)
[22:09:35] aac-decoder done: 590 frames, 0 decoder errors
[22:09:35] h264-decoder done: 410 frames, 0 decoder errors
[22:09:35] sync: got 410 frames, 410 expected
[22:09:35] sync: framerate min 29.980 fps, max 29.980 fps, avg 29.978 fps
x265 [info]: frame I:      3, Avg QP:27.77  kb/s: 40240.66
x265 [info]: frame P:     82, Avg QP:28.62  kb/s: 24753.63
x265 [info]: frame B:    325, Avg QP:32.13  kb/s: 7767.19 
x265 [info]: Weighted P-Frames: Y:0.0% UV:0.0%
x265 [info]: consecutive B-frames: 2.4% 1.2% 1.2% 2.4% 92.9% 

encoded 410 frames in 199.21s (2.06 fps), 11402.09 kb/s, Avg QP:31.40
[22:09:35] mux: track 0, 410 frames, 19494450 bytes, 11375.30 kbps, fifo 256
[22:09:35] mux: track 1, 590 frames, 148649 bytes, 86.74 kbps, fifo 512
[22:09:35] libhb: work result = 0

User avatar
s55
HandBrake Team
Posts: 9443
Joined: Sun Dec 24, 2006 1:05 pm

Re: Encoding struggles after 2-3 seconds or stalls

Post by s55 » Thu Feb 07, 2019 9:27 pm

This is about the expected performance for that machine.

Your running an Low Power, 2 Core CPU putting though very large 4K content though one of the most complex encoders.

You might get another 10~20% improvement turning off interlace detection and deinterlace on the filters tab. It's unlikely to be needed here.
Ultimately though, short of using x264 or the VideoToolbox encoders (assuming your mac supports it), your not going to get much faster

fcs87zrvfx2
Posts: 2
Joined: Thu Feb 07, 2019 8:41 pm

Re: Encoding struggles after 2-3 seconds or stalls

Post by fcs87zrvfx2 » Thu Feb 07, 2019 9:49 pm

Thank you for your quick reply. It does support those other encoders but of course I merely get any reduction in the resulting file size compared to H265. The ultrafast setting combined with turning off interlace detection and deinterlace helped to get it to a bearable speed. Thanks!

mduell
Veteran User
Posts: 6527
Joined: Sat Apr 21, 2007 8:54 pm

Re: Encoding struggles after 2-3 seconds or stalls

Post by mduell » Fri Feb 08, 2019 3:20 am

Ultrafast is so inefficient you're probably better with x264 on more reasonable settings.

User avatar
BradleyS
Moderator
Posts: 1553
Joined: Thu Aug 09, 2007 12:16 pm

Re: Encoding struggles after 2-3 seconds or stalls

Post by BradleyS » Fri Feb 08, 2019 6:45 am

Also be aware many CPUs clock higher during brief periods of use but must slow back down due to thermal restrictions, which can affect the very beginning of an encode. If the source begins with a fade from back or theatrical titles on a black background, this is also quite easy to encode, and combined with the previously mentioned CPU turbo functionality, can make the early parts of the encode seem far more efficient than what is continuously sustainable with varied content.

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